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Fronto-temporal dementia

Help with Fronto-temporal dementia in later life.

Suppose you are alone at night and the electricity cuts out. You’d find a torch, check the fuse box and ring the electricity supplier. This is not a solution you’d have learned – your brain would easily be able to come up with it there and then. But in the case of someone with fronto-temporal Dementia, creating solutions to unexpected or new experiences may be a struggle.

This form of dementia, affecting the front parts of the brain, is relatively rare. Your memory may remain normal, but your behaviour or personality may change. Because it develops very slowly, early diagnosis is important to help people adapt to and live with the changes they are experiencing.

Find out more about Fronto-temporal dementia

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms usually start very slowly and develop over time. Common symptoms of Fronto-Temporal Dementia include:

  • inability to think flexibly or cope with new situations
  • impulsiveness
  • argumentativeness and aggression
  • sexual inappropriateness and loss of inhibitions
  • obsessiveness
  • disorganisation and inability to care for oneself
  • speech problems

What are the causes?

The cause is not known, but there are probably a number of them. In some cases a protein called tau accumulates in the brain. Some (but by no means all) are inherited through faulty genes. Picks Disease is a subtype of Fronto-Temporal Dementia.

Key facts about Fronto-Temporal Dementia

  • It is a relatively rare cause of dementia; affecting around 18,000 people in the UK
  • It affects younger people compared to most other types of dementia – usually starting when people are in their 50s or 60s.
  • The early symptoms are subtle and may be put down to “mid-life crisis”
  • It is genetically inherited in about 10% of cases
  • There are three subtypes: Behavioural Variant; Aphasic and Semantic Dementia

How will it affect me?

People with Fronto-Temporal Dementia are unlikely to be aware of the problems they face and may not be keen to seek help. However those around them will notice problems with work, especially when this involves concentrating or making decisions; problems with social interactions (often with family and friends being alienated because of rudeness or irritability) and difficulty with doing day-to-day tasks. The problems will be subtle in the first few years. The effects will vary depending on the condition; the Behavioural Subtype may result in impulsive or disinhibited behaviour or apathy; Aphasic Subtype means people have problems speaking fluently and in the Semantic Subtype people lose understanding for words.

How is it diagnosed?

 Some of the symptoms of Fronto-Temporal Dementia also occur in other conditions (like depression, mania, or anxiety) so it is important to see a doctor experienced in diagnosing dementia.

The doctor will take a full account of how the symptoms started and progressed and will want to do some brain function (cognitive) tests. It is also important to get the views of someone who knows the patient well. An MRI brain scan can be very helpful in many cases, and sometimes a special scan (SPECT or PET) of blood flow in the brain can help.

What is the treatment for Fronto-Temporal Dementia?

People with Fronto-Temporal Dementia need a team of specialists to help them. At the moment there are no drug treatments (although some are in the pipeline) specifically for this type of dementia.

A main part of treatment is helping the person, and their family, understand what the diagnosis is and how it will affect them. Psychological effects (such as behaviour change) can benefit from the help of a psychologist or psychiatrist. A speech and language therapist can provide practical advice if speech is affected, and an occupational therapist can help, for example by making sure the home is safe and providing adaptations for daily tasks. Occasionally, medication such as antidepressants or tranquillisers may be needed.

People with FTD and their families will need counselling and advice about planning for the future; for example, how to set up a Lasting Power of Attorney.

We’re Red & Yellow Care, the
health experts for later life.

At Red & Yellow Care we specialise in diagnosis, treatment, care and advice for older adults. Our approach is unique – we build a complete picture of the individual – and we treat them like an individual. We guarantee fast and flexible appointments with the very best specialists.

Meet some of our consultants.

Dr James Warner

Consultant Psychiatrist


Dr Hema Ananth

Consultant Psychiatrist


Dr Alex Bailey

Consultant Psychiatrist


Dr Alan Smith

Consultant Psychiatrist


Dr Giovanna Zamboni

Consultant Neurologist


How we can help.

Because we are the specialists in health for older adults, we can offer all the expertise you need from one source.

We usually visit you at home, or alternatively can see you at our Consulting Rooms. We aim to arrange all appointments within a matter of days.

Clear and simple pricing.

First appointment up to 90 minutes, priced at £450.

Further appointments at £300 up to 60 minutes, £200 up to 30 minutes.

Home visit supplements starting from £100.

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We have the best consultants and other specialists dedicated to the health of older people.


We aim for our specialists to see you within a matter of days, and within 24 hours for urgent appointments.


We fit our service around you. Planning your appointments where and when suits you best.


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  • Had a wonderful appointment with my mum. Amazed at the thoroughness and delicacy which Dr Zamboni afforded her.
    Laura – daughter and carer
  • I have got my dad back. We’ve seen massive improvements – his morning confusion is gone, he’s not forgetful or perplexed, and his motivation has improved.
    Natalie – daughter and carer
  • Gwyn Grout has been very helpful and supportive of my mother & family and has co-ordinated her care very well. She has been objective and listens well to the difficulties we have experienced.
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    Request an appointment today.

    Dr Giovanna Zamboni

    Dr Giovanna Zamboni is a Senior Clinical Fellow and Honorary Consultant Neurologist at the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford.  She graduated in Medicine and Surgery and specialized in Neurology at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy, where she developed a special interest in dementia and cognitive disorders and worked in memory clinics while also continuing her clinical training in general neurology. She then worked as postdoctoral fellow for almost three years at the National Institutes of Health in the United States. In 2008 she joined the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA) to lead the continued development of the neuroimaging research while working as Locum Consultant in the Oxford Memory Clinic (OXMAC) of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford.  In 2012 she obtained a doctoral degree (DPhil) defending a thesis entitled “Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the prediction and characterization of Alzheimer’s disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment”. She is currently responsible for the continued development of functional imaging research of the Stroke and Dementia Prevention Research Unit in Oxford. She is author of several papers and publications in the fields of imaging and dementia. Her clinical expertise is in the early detection of cognitive impairment and in the differential diagnosis of atypical dementia.


    Giovanna is specialised in the diagnosis and treatment of older adults (aged over 50) with a wide range of conditions including:

    Alzheimer’s disease
    Vascular dementia
    Lewy Body dementia
    Fronto-temporal dementia
    Posterior cortical atrophy and other atypical dementias
    Mild Cognitive Impairment
    Parkinson’s disease
    Atypical Parkinsonian syndromes – Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome, Multisystem Atrophy
    Epilepsy & seizures
    Sleep Disorders

    Assessment and Treatment

    Giovanna provides thorough diagnostic assessments, treatment and ongoing reviews. She aims to see you within a matter of days from referral and can see you at your home or at our consulting rooms.

    Appointment prices

    Initial assessment of 60 minutes incl. report, priced at £300.

    Initial assessment of 90 minutes incl. report, priced at £450.

    Optional follow-ups at £300 for 60 minutes, and £200 for 30 minutes.

    Home visit supplements starting from £100.